The present country of Tanzania came into being in 1964 with the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar . There are over 120tribes on the mainland, most of which migrated from other parts of Africa. The fist Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese, who controlled most of the costal region. The Portuguese also controlled Zanzibar until 1699 when they were ousted from the island by Omari Arabis. In the late 19th century, along with Rwanda and Burundi, Tanganyika was absorbed into the colony of German East Africa as a consequence of a deal between the British and Germans.
Following the German defeat in ww , the territory was administered by the British under successive league of Nation and United Nations Mandates. Tanganyika become independent within the Commonwealth in 1961 after a period of self-government during which the principal nationalist part, the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), emerged as the dominant political force. Its charismatic leader, Julius Nyerere, held the post of President from indent from independence to 1985. In 1964, Tanganyika joined with Zanzibar and become Tanzania.
The United Republic of Tanzania lies on the Indian Ocean and is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the North, Burundi, Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, and by Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The Tanzania mainland is divided into several clearly defined region- the coastal plains, which have lush tropical vegetation, the Maasai steppe in the north, 200 - 1000 meters (700 - 3500 feet) above sea level, and a high plateau in the south towards Zambia and lake Nyasa. Savannah and bush cover for the remaining land area. Volcanic highlands can be seen in the Northeast and southwest of the country. Over 53,000 square Km in inland water, mostly lakes formed in the Great rift valley. The United Republic of Tanzania included the Island of Zanzibar and Pemba, about 45km (23 miles) off the cost to the Northeast of the Country.
Commercial capital: Dar es Salaam
Administrative Capital: Dodoma
The climate is tropical and costal area are usually hot and humid but regulated by sea breezes. There are two season of rain in Tanzania: the long rain run from late March until June and short rains fall in heavy downpours, often accompanied by violent storms. The short rains tend to be much less seven. The hottest time of the year is December to March and the coolest months are June, July and August. In high Altitude areas such as Kilimanjaro or the Ngorongoro highlands temperatures can fall below Freezing.
International Direct Dial is Available, Country code is +255. Outgoing international code is 000. there are public call boxes in the post offices and main towns. Several cellular phone companies operate in Tanzania.
Dar es Salaam International is 15km southwest of the city ( time downtown 25 minutes). Airport facilities included duty- free shop, car hire, post office, banking and bureau de change a bar and restaurant.
Zanzibar International Airport is approximately 7 km from the center of stone town (time downtown15 minutes). Facilities include restaurant and bureau de Change.
Kilimanjaro International Airport lies 40km from Arusha (time downtown 1 hour). Facilities include shops, post office, bar and restaurant. There are shuttle bus services to both Arusha and Moshi.
As requirement and regulations are subject to change at short notice, visitor are requested to contact the nearest Tanzanian Diplomatic Mission or Travel health advisor well in advance of their intended date of departure.